Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is an object storage service that offers industry-leading scalability, data availability, security, and performance. Customers of all sizes and industries can use Amazon S3 to store and protect any amount of data for a range of use cases, such as data lakes, websites, mobile applications, backup and restore, archive, enterprise applications, IoT devices, and big data analytics. Amazon S3 provides management features so that you can optimize, organize, and configure access to your data to meet your specific business, organizational, and compliance requirements.

  • Storage and access management
  • Storage logging and monitoring
  • Analytics and insights
  • Strong consistency

Getting Started

Connections come in two flavors: source and sink. Source connections read from an external system and write to a Decodable stream, while sink connections read from a stream and write to an external system.

Amazon S3 connectors can only be used in the sink role.

Configure As A Sink

To create and configure a connector for S3, sign in to the Decodable Web Console, navigate to the Connections tab, click on New Connection, and follow the steps below. For examples of using the command line tools or scripting, see the How To guides.

  1. The connector type will default to sink, since that is the only option for S3 connectors.

  2. Specify the AWS region of your S3 bucket. If not specified, it will default to your Decodable Account region. For example, us-west-2.

  3. Specify the name of your S3 bucket.

  4. Optionally provide your S3 object key (path) prefix. Amazon S3 has a flat structure instead of a hierarchy like you would see in a file system. However, for the sake of organizational simplicity, you can use the folder concept as a means of grouping objects.

  5. Specify the AWS ARN of the IAM role. For example, arn:aws:iam::111222333444:role/decodable-s3-access.

  6. Optionally provide a partition template. See below for details.

  7. Select a data format used to deserialize and serialize the keys and values, which can be one of the following:

    • JSON, the JSON format allows to read and write JSON data that is based on a JSON schema. When using JSON, you must also provide:
      • the format to be used when encoding timestamps as JSON strings, which can be either SQL or ISO-8601
      • whether or not to encode decimals as plain numbers
    • Parquet, Apache parquet is a columnar storage format that is optimized for fast retrieval of data. When using Parquet, you must also provide:
      • the compression algorithm to use for serialization, which can be one of the following: none, SNAPPY, GZIP, or LZO
    • Raw, the Raw format allows to read and write raw (byte based) values as a single column.

For more detailed information about Amazon S3, see the S3 Getting Started guide and related documentation.

Reference

Connector names3
Typesink
Delivery guaranteeexactly once

The S3 connector streams data to an S3 bucket in your AWS account. To use it, configure an AWS IAM Role as described below, with specific permissions to write to the bucket.

Properties

The following properties are supported by the S3 connector.

PropertyDispositionDescription
regionoptionalRegion of S3 bucket. Defaults to Decodable Account region.
Example: us-west-2
bucketrequiredName of S3 bucket.
Example: my-bucket
directoryrequiredS3 key (path) prefix, used as directory (regardless of start/end slashes (/)).
formatrequiredMust be json, parquet, or raw.
role-arnrequiredAWS ARN of the IAM Role configured as described below.
Example: arn:aws:iam::111222333444:role/decodable-s3-access.
partition-templateoptionalFor value-based S3 object key partitioning. See below for details.

JSON Format Properties

When using format=json, the following properties are optionally allowed:

PropertyDispositionDescription
json.timestamp-format.standardoptionalSpecify the timestamp format for TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_LTZ types. Defaults to ISO-8601
  • SQL will use a "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS" format, e.g "2020-12-30 12:13:14.123"
  • ISO-8601 will parse input TIMESTAMP in "yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss.SSS" format, e.g "2020-12-30T12:13:14.123"
json.encode.decimal-as-plain-numberoptionalMust be true or false, defaults to false.
When true, always encode numbers without scientific notation.
For example, a number encoded 2.7E-8 by default would be encoded 0.000000027.

Parquet Format Properties

When using format=parquet, the following properties are optionally allowed:

PropertyDescription
parquet.compressionOptions are SNAPPY, GZIP and LZO. Defaults to no compression.

Other parquet options are also available. Refer to ParquetOutputFormat for more information.

S3 Object Key Formation

The S3 object parts are joined as <directory>/<partition-key>/<object-name>.<format>

The computed object-name includes a (wallclock) timestamp in milliseconds, followed by a random string.

In the final computed S3 object key, any series of contiguous slashes, such as ///, is reduced to a single slash /.

IAM Role, Permissions, and Security

To be secure, you, AWS, and Decodable work together to ensure only S3 connections in your Decodable Account can put data to your S3 bucket.

How?

AWS IAM provides a special mechanism — called ExternalId — that you and Decodable will use as described here, which ensures access from Decodable to your bucket happens only for your Decodable Account. Like this:

  • You'll create and configure an IAM Role with two Policies:
    • A Trust Policy allowing access from Decodable's AWS account — but only with an ExternalId matching your (unique) Decodable account name.
    • A Permissions Policy with the needed permissions on your bucket.
  • You'll provide us the ARN of this Role via your Decodable S3 connection's role-arn property.
  • Our servers will assume that Role using an ExternalId value matching only your Decodable Account name — never any other. We'll use that to talk to your bucket.

Note that the values here are not treated as secret (by us, AWS, or you): not ExternalId (your account name), not the Role ARN, not the bucket name.

Specifically, your IAM Role (per-roleArn) must:

  • have an AssumeRole Trust Policy that:
    • names Decodable's AWS account ID (671293015970) as Principal.
    • has a Condition requiring sts:ExternalId to equal your Decodable Account name.
  • have a Permissions Policy allowing needed operations on the bucket (not Role) ARN and (wildcardable) S3 key (path).
    The Policy Actions are:
    • s3:GetObject
    • s3:PutObject
    • s3:DeleteObject
    • s3:ListBucket (on the bucket only)

For example

Here's an example IAM Trust Policy. Replace my-decodable-account. Note that 671293015970 is Decodable's AWS account ID and must match exactly.

{
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
    {
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Principal": {
        "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::671293015970:root"
      },
      "Action": "sts:AssumeRole",
      "Condition": {
        "StringEquals": {
          "sts:ExternalId": "my-decodable-account"
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}

Note: To allow several Decodable Accounts (say, in different AWS Regions) to write to the same bucket, use an array of Account names for the ExternalId value:

{ "sts:ExternalId": ["my-acct-1", "my-acct-2"] }

Here's an example IAM Permissions Policy. Replace your-bucket (twice) and /some/dir appropriately. Note that the path (here: /some/dir) can be blank to put S3 objects to bucket root path, but the trailing /* is required.

{
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
    {
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Action": ["s3:PutObject", "s3:GetObject", "s3:DeleteObject"],
      "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::your-bucket/some/dir/*"
    },
    {
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Action": ["s3:ListBucket"],
      "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::your-bucket"
    }
  ]
}

Further reading — from AWS

For full discussion from AWS of the security problem this solves, and its AWS-recommended solution using ExternalId, we recommend reading:
AWS Identity and Access Management • The confused deputy problem
.

Value-Based S3 Object Key Partitioning

You can partition the S3 Object key paths by value using the partition-template connection property.

Each S3 object in a given partition (as expressed in the key) will have the same values for all referenced columns, with column references for TIMESTAMP-type values extracted via a format argument with syntax for Java's DateTimeFormatter.

Column references are delimited by curly braces: { ... }, with optional argument delimited by a colon :. The argument is only used with references to TIMESTAMP-type columns.

For example:

  • {some_value}/{another_value}
  • before/{some_value}/after
  • {a_timestamp:yyyy/MM/dd}
  • some_value={some_value} (for hive)
  • {a_timestamp:'year'=yyyy/'month'=MM/'day'=dd} (for hive)
  • {a_timestamp} (same as above, the default)

Slashes at start and end are irrelevant in the final computed S3 object key.

The default TIMESTAMP reference format argument is:

  • 'year'=yyyy/'month'=MM/'day'=dd

The partition-template property is optional, and defaults to an empty string.

Supported types

Only the following SQL data types are supported.

Type familyTypes
Character StringSTRING, CHAR, VARCHAR
Integer NumericTINYINT, SMALLINT, INTEGER, BIGINT
TimestampTIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMP_LTZ

Examples with data

Given a connection/stream schema and a record with values:

ColumnTypeValue
event_attimestamp2022-01-02 03:04:05 UTC
methodstringGET
codeint418

The partition key would be generated as in the following examples.

partition-templateGenerated partition key
{method}GET
before/{method}/afterbefore/GET/after
method={method}method=GET
{method}/{code}GET/418
method={method}/code={code}method=GET/code=418
{event_at}year=2022/month=01/day=02
{event_at:yyyy/MM/dd/HH/mm}2022/01/02/03/04
{event_at:'year'=yyyy/'month'=MM}year=2022/month=01

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